Discovered that stars are almost entirely hydrogen and helium Recent Scientists of the Week Karl Landsteiner:
Hellenic science was built upon the foundations laid by Thales and Pythagoras. It reached its zenith in the works of Aristotle and Archimedes. Aristotle represents the first tradition, that of qualitative forms and teleology.
He was himself a biologist whose observations of marine organisms… Method Concerning Mechanical Theorems describes a process of discovery in mathematics. It is the sole surviving work from antiquity, and one of the few from any period, that deals with this topic.
Archimedes emphasizes that, though useful as a heuristic method, this procedure does not constitute a rigorous proof. On Floating Bodies in two books survives only partly in Greek, the rest in medieval Latin translation from the Greek.
It is the first known work on hydrostaticsof which Archimedes is recognized as the founder. Its purpose is to determine the positions that various solids will assume when floating in a fluid, according to their form and the variation in their specific gravities.
The second book is a mathematical tour de force unmatched in antiquity and rarely equaled since. In it Archimedes determines the different positions of stability that a right paraboloid of revolution assumes when floating in a fluid of greater specific gravityaccording to geometric and hydrostatic variations.
Archimedes is known, from references of later authors, to have written a number of other works that have not survived. Those include a work on inscribing the regular heptagon in a circle; a collection of lemmas propositions assumed to be true that are used to prove a theorem and a book, On Touching Circles, both having to do with elementary plane geometry; and the Stomachion parts of which also survive in Greekdealing with a square divided into 14 pieces for a game or puzzle.
These methods, of which Archimedes was a master, are the standard procedure in all his works on higher geometry that deal with proving results about areas and volumes. The same freedom from conventional ways of thinking is apparent in the arithmetical field in Sand-Reckoner, which shows a deep understanding of the nature of the numerical system.
In antiquity Archimedes was also known as an outstanding astronomer: Surprising though it is to find those metaphysical speculations in the work of a practicing astronomer, there is good reason to believe that their attribution to Archimedes is correct.
Nevertheless, his mathematical work was not continued or developed, as far as is known, in any important way in ancient times, despite his hope expressed in Method that its publication would enable others to make new discoveries. However, when some of his treatises were translated into Arabic in the late 8th or 9th century, several mathematicians of medieval Islam were inspired to equal or improve on his achievements.
That holds particularly in the determination of the volumes of solids of revolution, but his influence is also evident in the determination of centres of gravity and in geometric construction problems. Thus, several meritorious works by medieval Islamic mathematicians were inspired by their study of Archimedes.
Without the background of the rediscovered ancient mathematicians, among whom Archimedes was paramount, the development of mathematics in Europe in the century between and is inconceivable.Dec 08, · Most famous scientists of the past have had faith in God.
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Nikola Tesla () was the genius who lit the world, whose discoveries in the field of alternating polyphase current electricity advanced the United States and the rest of the world into the modern industrial era. Nikola Tesla had patents in the US and Europe.
Tesla's discoveries include the Tesla Coil, fluorescent light, wireless transmission of electrical energy, radio, remote.
Famous historical figures. A list of famous people throughout history. These famous historical figures are chosen from a range of different cultures and countries. Who Was Galileo Galilei? Galileo Galilei (February 15, to January 8, ) was an Italian astronomer, mathematician, physicist, philosopher and professor who made pioneering observations of.
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Galileo Galilei discovers the principle of inertia, building the stage for a rational view of motion. Scientist of the Week. Karl Landsteiner: Discovered the blood group system; Recent Scientists of the Week.