Decline of the mughal empire

Anyone who believes that history is not merely a series of accidents might well see God's hand behind the creation of an empire that, despite all the ills of an imperial system imposed on unwilling subjects, also left a cultural, literary, legal and political legacy that binds people of different religions and races together. Building on commercial links in the wool trade promoted during the reign of King Richard III of England, Henry established the modern English merchant marine system, which greatly expanded English shipbuilding and seafaring. The merchant fleet also supplied the basis for the mercantile institutions that would play such a crucial role in later British imperial ventures, such as the Massachusetts Bay Company and the British East India Company chartered by Henry's grand-daughter, Elizabeth I. Henry's financial reforms made the English Exchequer solvent, which helped to underwrite the development of the Merchant Marine.

Decline of the mughal empire

You need Flash Player version 9. Akbar embraces all of India's religions Jalaludin Muhammad Akbar Akbar the Great became the third emperor of the Mughal Empire while just a teenager Decline of the mughal empire ruled from — Spending half of his reign at war, he consolidated Mughal power and expanded the empire to Gujarat, Bengal and Kabul—not since Ashoka's reign nearly 2, years earlier was so much of India united under one ruler.

Extensive land surveys and assessments enabled Akbar's territorial expansion and attempted to protect peasants from unfair taxes. Other administrative reforms included a system of military ranking that required nobles to raise troops for the military and increased loyalty to the emperor by making nobles directly responsible to him for their rank.

Akbar's reign saw lucrative trade with Europe, especially in cotton textiles, and word of his achievements and reputation spread to that continent.

InElizabeth I sent an ambassador to India bearing a personal letter to Akbar, who was on a military expedition and did not meet with the English emissary.

Akbar and his chief advisor, Abu'l Faz'l who wrote Akbar—nama, a year—by—year account of Akbar's reign linked kingship with divinity, redefining the ruler as a military, strategic, and spiritual leader.

Recognizing that hatred among the various religious groups threatened to undermine the empire, Akbar, himself a Muslimpromoted racial tolerance and religious freedom under the policy of "universal tolerance" or "sulahkul. A student of comparative religion, he welcomed visitors of all faiths—including JainsJesuits, Hindus and Zoroastrians—to his court.

Discussions with these visitors led him to develop his own religious teachings, Din—i—Ilahi or "divine faith," that sought to transcend sectarian religion.

The establishment of the Mughal Empire

Music, art and literature flourished in Akbar's cosmopolitan court. Although he never learned to read and may have been dyslexic, he collected an imperial library of over 24, volumes and commissioned translations of many works, including the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Akbar's fort at Agra that included five hundred buildings and his city of Fatehpur Sikri illustrate the architectural style developed under his rule.

Mughal Empire Arches in Agra The Mughal Empire was founded in CE, peaked around and steadily declined into the 19th century, severely weakened by conflicts over succession. Mughal rule began with Zahiruddin Muhammad Baburwho invaded northern India from his post in Kabul, and overthrew Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi sultans.

At its height, the Mughal Empire included most of the Indian subcontinent and an estimated population of million people. The empire's primary activities of war and expansion were supported by a strong central administrative and political system fully developed under Akbarthe third Mughal emperor.

Under Akbar's rulethe empire expanded north to Kabul and Kashmir, east to Bengal and Orissa, south to Gujarat and southwest to Rajasthan. Establishing himself as a spiritual as well as military and strategic leader, Akbar promoted a policy of tolerance for all religions.

His son, Jahangirand Jahangir's wife, Nur Jahan, who was highly influential in court politics, carried on Akbar's policies of centralized government and religious tolerance.

India's economy grew under the Mughals as a result of the empire's strong infrastructure, expansion and trade with Europeans, who established bases in various Indian ports.

Shah Jahan —58Jahangir's son, diverted wealth away from the military toward magnificent building projects including the Taj Mahal and a new capital city, Shajahanabad, site of a royal fortress and the largest mosque in India, the Jama Masjid.

Decline of the mughal empire

Shah Jahan's reign marked a turn toward a more Muslim-centered government, which his son Aurangzeb favored in contrast with his other son Dara Shikohwho favored a more diverse court.

After a two-year fight for succession that resulted in Shah Jahan's imprisonment and Dara's death, Aurangzeb — assumed the throne. He reversed many of Akbar's policies supporting religious tolerance, and Islamic religious law sharia became the foundation of Mughal government.

By the late 17th century, the empire was in decline, weakened by succession conflicts, an entrenched war waged by Aurangzeb in the south, growing inequality between rich and poor and loss of support from nobles and gentry. By the midth century, the once great Mughal Empire was confined to a small area around Delhi.

Decline of the mughal empire

Tomb of Salim Chisti Tomb of Salim Chisti Located in the courtyard of the Jama MasjidFatehpur Sikri's large mosque, the white marble tomb is set on a raised platform across from a small pool.

It, like the rest of the city, was built in tribute to Shaikh Salim Chisti, the Sufi saint who correctly predicted the birth of Akbar 's son and heir, Prince Salim the future Emperor Jahangir.

The original structure, finished in red sandstone, was completed inbut in the early 17th century, the marble exterior of the present-day structure was added at the behest of Emperor Jahangir. The square mausoleum measuring 48 feet on each side is topped by a single dome with a porch entrance on its south side.The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb.

In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. The empire was founded by Osman I (in Arabic ʿUthmān, عُثمَان, hence the name Ottoman Empire). In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities and the countries of Europe felt threatened by the .

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The Mughal Empire is a fascinating mosaic in the history of India. The 'decline' of the Mughal Empire, along with its power, wealth, stability, territoriality, and exquisite and surreal character, has engaged historians for several decades in a complex and contentious debate.

The Mughal Empire, – The significance of Mughal rule. The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent.

From to , during the heyday of its fabulous wealth and glory, the Mughal Empire was a fairly efficient and centralized organization, with a vast complex of personnel, money, and information. In fact, the decline began during the last days of were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty.

Let us view the causes that hastenedthe fall of the Mughal Empire after ashio-midori.comzeb’s responsibility:Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. The Mughal empire from that time remained just a name without any real power.

Conclusion: Thus, there were many reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire. The downfall of the empire that existed and ruled for over .

Decline of the Mughal Empire in India