Not all Greek poleis plural for polis were the same.
Sometime in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the lagoon elected their first leader Ursus, who was confirmed by Byzantium and given the titles of hypatus and dux. He was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, however, first attested in the early eleventh century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke inthough this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Retrieved August 22, He was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were ultimately unsuccessful.
During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politic of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional division of Venetia.
One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported mostly by clergy in line with papal sympathies of the timethey looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Shortas the best provider of defense against the Lombards.
A minor, pro-Lombard, faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighboring and surrounding, but for the sea Lombard kingdom.
By the Pax Nicephori the two emperors had recognized Venetian de facto independence, while it remained nominally Byzantine in subservience.
During the reign of the Participazio, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, Agnello, first doge of the family, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, canals, bulwarks, fortifications, and stone buildings.
The modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being born. Agnello was succeeded by his son Giustiniano, who brought the body of Saint Mark the Evangelist to Venice from Alexandria and made him the patron saint of Venice.
During the reign of the successor of the Participazio, Pietro Tradonico, Venice began to establish its military capability, which would influence many a later crusade and dominate the Adriatic for centuries.
Tradonico secured the sea by fighting Slavic and Saracen pirates. Aroundthe Republic of Venice sent a fleet of 60 galleys each carrying men to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but it fails. In the High Middle Ages, Venice became extremely wealthy through its control of trade between Europe and the Levant, and began to expand into the Adriatic Sea and beyond.
InDomenico Selvo personally led a fleet against the Normans, but he was defeated and lost nine great galleys, the largest and most heavily armed ships in the Venetian war fleet. In there was an anti-Western riot in Constantinopleof which the Venetians were the main targets.
Many in the Empire had become jealous of Venetian power and influence, and thus, when in the pretender Andronikos I Komnenos marched on Constantinople, Venetian property was seized and the owners imprisoned or banished, an act which humiliated, and angered the Republic.
The Venetian fleet was crucial to the transportation of the Fourth Crusadebut when the crusaders could not pay for the ships, the cunning and manipulative Doge Enrico Dandolo quickly exploited the situation and offered transport to the crusaders if they were to capture the Christian Dalmatian city of Zadar Italian: Zarawhich had rebelled against the Venetian rule inplaced itself under the dual protection of the Papacy and King Emeric of Hungary and had proven too well fortified to retake for Venice alone.
After accomplishing this the crusade was again diverted to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empireanother rival of Venice in revenge for the massacre of Venetian citizens living in Constantinople.
The city was captured and sacked in ; the sack has been described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history. As a result of the subsequent partition of the Byzantine Empire, Venice gained a great deal of territory in the Aegean Sea three-eighths of the Byzantine Empireincluding the islands of Crete and Euboea.
The Aegean islands came to form the Venetian Duchy of the Archipelago. Throughout the Crusades, the republic continued to trade with Muslim partners. InPietro Gradenigo sent a fleet of 68 ships to attack a Genoese fleet at Alexandretta, then another fleet of ships were sent to attack the Genoese in Venetian fort in Nafplion, Greece.
This is one of the many forts that secured the Venetian trade routes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Fifteenth century In the early fifteenth century, the Venetians also began to expand in Italyas well as along the Dalmatian coast from Istria to Albaniawhich was acquired from King Ladislas of Naples during the civil war in Hungary.
Ladislas was about to lose the conflict and had decided to escape to Naples, but before doing so he agreed to sell his now practically forfeit rights on the Dalmatian cities for a meager sum ofducats. Venice exploited the situation and quickly installed nobility to govern the area, for example, Count Filippo Stipanov in Zadar.Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity clergy A body of officials who perform religious services, such .
Name Date Period Questions/Cues Notes: Unit 1 – Roman Empire (Ch. 1, Section 2) I. Creating a Republic I. Creating a Republic Rome started as a city-state as the city grew, citizens selected people to represent them and make their laws start of the Roman Republic.
Rome went from being one of many city-states in the Italian Peninsula to being the center of the most powerful empire in the world between the fifth century BCE and the first century CE.
The Roman Republic itself then became the Roman Empire. Other ancient republics [ edit ] The term "republic" is not commonly used to refer to pre-classical city states, especially if outside Europe and the area which was under Graeco-Roman influence.
. The "Roman Empire" (Imperium Romanum) is used to denote that part of the world under Roman rule from approximately 44 B.C.E. until C.E. The term also distinguished imperial from Republican Rome. The expansion of Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome started long before the state became an Empire.
The Roman Republic refers to an ancient state centered in the city of Rome, dated from approximately BC, when the last monarch was expelled, to 27 BC, when the first emperor of Rome was crowned. According to legend, Rome was founded in BC by the brothers Romulus and Remus; from that date until the early sixth century BC, a time known as.