Jainism According to Jain teaching, there were 23 Tirthankaras saintly prophets or proclaimers of salvation before Mahavira Vardhamana, the 6th-century-bce Indian religious leader after whom Jainism was named. Today they are venerated as saints in temples containing their images. Veneration of the Holy Tirthankaras is viewed in terms of purifying the devotee morally, as these saints are but examples for the Jainas and not actually objects of a cult.
Li also means religious rites which establish relations between humanity and the gods. According to Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the underlying order of nature. Correctly performed rituals move society in alignment with earthly and heavenly astral forces, establishing the harmony of the three realms—Heaven, Earth and humanity.
Among all things of creation, humans themselves are "central" because they have the ability to cultivate and centre natural forces. Confucius includes in his discussions of li such diverse topics as learning, tea drinking, titles, mourning, and governance.
Xunzi cites "songs and laughter, weeping and lamentation Confucius envisioned proper government being guided by the principles of li. Some Confucians proposed that all human beings may pursue perfection by learning and practising li. Overall, Confucians believe that governments should place more emphasis on li and rely much less on penal punishment when they Philosophical traditions confucianism daoism legalism.
Confucius himself did not propose that "might makes right," but rather that a superior should be obeyed because of his moral rectitude. In addition, loyalty does not mean subservience to authority. This is because reciprocity is demanded from the superior as well.
As Confucius stated "a prince should employ his minister according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness loyalty. If the ruler is evil, then the people have the right to overthrow him.
Like filial piety, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes in China. Nonetheless, throughout the ages, many Confucians continued to fight against unrighteous superiors and rulers. Many of these Confucians suffered and sometimes died because of their conviction and action.
This may be true especially in times of social chaos, such as during the period of the Ming-Qing transition. Filial piety In Confucian philosophy, filial piety Chinese: Filial piety is considered a key virtue in Chinese cultureand it is the main concern of a large number of stories.
These stories depict how children exercised their filial piety in the past. While China has always had a diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost all of them; historian Hugh D. Baker calls respect for the family the only element common to almost all Chinese believers.
Reciprocity or responsibility renqing extends beyond filial piety and involves the entire network of social relations, even the respect for rulers. There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.
Analects XII, 11, tr. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: While juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence, seniors also have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors.
The same is true with the husband and wife relationship where the husband needs to show benevolence towards his wife and the wife needs to respect the husband in return.
This theme of mutuality still exists in East Asian cultures even to this day. The Five Bonds are: Specific duties were prescribed to each of the participants in these sets of relationships. Such duties are also extended to the dead, where the living stand as sons to their deceased family.
All these duties take the practical form of prescribed rituals, for instance wedding and death rituals. Junzi The junzi Chinese: In the I Ching it is used by the Duke of Wen. In Confucianism, the sage or wise is the ideal personality; however, it is very hard to become one of them. Confucius created the model of junzi, gentleman, which may be achieved by any individual.
Later, Zhu Xi defined junzi as second only to the sage. There are many characteristics of the junzi:ashio-midori.com: Three Philosophies of China: Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism II.
Rational: These are the philosophies of Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. This unit of the World, these two schools of thought can be classified as philosophical and religious Daoism. The major difference between these two schools is the idea of the dao itself.
Yang Xiong was born in 53 B.C.E. in the western city of Chengdu in the province of Shu. His biography in the Qian Han Shu (History of the Former Han) remarks that Yang Xiong was fond of learning, was unconcerned with wealth, office, and reputation, and suffered from a speech impediment and.
Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism are all forms of different ways of thinking.
These different “thought processes” are considered, in different ways, a big influence on different cultures. Philosophical traditions of Confucianism, Daoism & Legalism. politics, religion and philosophy.
New Philosophies for the Ancient Chinese people: Confucianism Daoism Legalism. Confucianism During the late Zhou Dynasty, a major problem had arisen in China: the Chinese society was falling apart. While there was a king, the real power was in the hands of Confucianism is a unique teaching that is both philosophical and religious.
It has. Confucianism, the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th–5th century bce and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia.
Although transformed over time, it is still the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese.
Its influence has also extended to other countries, particularly Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Daoism: Daoism, indigenous religio-philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more than 2, years. In the broadest sense, a Daoist attitude toward life can be seen in the accepting and yielding, an attitude that offsets and complements the moral and duty-conscious character ascribed to Confucianism.