Ancash do, giving long i: Traditionally in Andean linguistics no terminological distinction is made between: It also simplifies the representation of the language in phonological tables, by allowing two columns to be conflated into one. Nonetheless, there seems little good argument for lumping these sounds together as a single class, and it remains far more accurate phonetically and indeed in terms of a phonological system, to distinguish them as I do here.
Part of the problem seems to be in the symbols used: Differences in Other Regional Varieties of Quechua intended for linguists: All other Quechua regional varieties have no ejectives, and barring some in Ecuador, no aspirated stops either. One pretty convincing theory, given that they only occur in varieties of Quechua in clear contact with Aymara, is that these series were borrowed from Aymara, where they occur with fewer restrictions than in Quechua.
They also maintain a clear phonemic opposition between two fricatives other than the glottal one: Other varieties still have introduced voiced stops and fricatives, sometimes just as allophones of the voiceless ones as in parts of Ecuadorsometimes only for the uvular stop as in Cochabamba, Boliviasometimes as full-blown distinctive phonemes as in San Martin and some Amazonian varieties of Quechua, I think.
Many speakers bilingual in Spanish also use voiced stops in words borrowed from Spanish. For more details on the sound system of Quechua, aimed particularly at linguists, try this other page of mine. In practice, I find the official spelling works best for a host of practical reasons, not least to avoid chaos with everyone doing their own thing.
Constant, and Wholly Irrespective of Morphology The first thing to note in the transcription is that stress is always on the penultimate syllable, wholly irrespective of morphology. Add a suffix and the stress moves forward by the same number of syllables, jumping from morpheme to morpheme as it goes.
Syllable Structure No diphthongs, and vowel hiatus is not possible, a glide must intervene. All word-internal and final syllables must start with a consonant.
A Three or a Five-Vowel System? Full details of this debate are now to be found on another page on this site. Note in the phonemic transcription above: Hence, though only in part, the existence of two competing orthographies for Quechua: Whether they are in the language as phonemes or not is in fact not really the what is argued about, however.
If the debate were at that level, all might be well. The real point is one of psychological awareness of phonemic contrast and allophonic variation. For Quechua is in the odd situation that anyone educated enough to be in the Academy is of course overwhelmingly accustomed to Spanish, and its phonemic system and corresponding orthography.
The closest they inadvertently got was shepherd vs. Informants with no axe to grind assured me that the two are pronounced identically, or rather, with identical ranges of possible pronunciations. Whatever, it was comforting in one sense: And all because of the difference between phoneme and allophone!
It was quite heartening, really, making up for all those times when linguistic debate seems a bit too ivory-towered. And if ever any linguist wants a demonstration of the psychological awareness status of allophonic vs.
Ejectives and Aspirates Some very odd behaviour here — lots of data for essays on why the pulmonic egressive airstream could be regarded as more standard than others like ejective.
Firstly, the restrictions on their behaviour: A further very interesting example can be illustrated from the texts above:Opponents maintain that the new orthography makes Quechua writing harder to learn for people familiar with Spanish.
Proponents, on the other hand, suggest that the new system better matches the phonology of . Accounting Tutors Accounting involves the study of financial information for individuals and corporations.
Accounting is typically divided into a few different fields, such as financial accounting, management accounting, tax accounting, and external auditing.
Lingua Quechua in Peru and Keeping Up With Kabila: The Week in Global-Affairs Writing. Anna Diamond is a former editorial fellow at The Atlantic. Twitter Email. About. Our History;. Some Intriguing Aspects of Quechua.
details on a number of particularly intriguing aspects of Quechua’s sound and grammatical systems, 69) argues for two different modal parameters (both validational and evidential), for Imbabura Quechua in Ecuador, writing.
In the Quechua texts, words in capitals are borrowings from Spanish. The first passage in particular, where Gregorio relates his time as a press-ganged conscript in the Peruvian Army (where Spanish was the only language it was permitted to speak).
We must work to increase the range of functions that Quechua can be used for so that we can embrace among others reading and writing, education, and communication in economic and legal processes” (20).