Support Aeon Donate now What is the best way to understand consciousness? But the rise of modern neuroscience has seen a more pragmatic approach gain ground: Its key is to recognise that explaining why consciousness exists at all is not necessary in order to make progress in revealing its material basis — to start building explanatory bridges from the subjective and phenomenal to the objective and measurable. In my work at the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science at the University of Sussex in Brighton, I collaborate with cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, brain imagers, virtual reality wizards and mathematicians — and philosophers too — trying to do just this.
September Remember the essays you had to write in high school? Topic sentence, introductory paragraph, supporting paragraphs, conclusion.
The conclusion being, say, that Ahab in Moby Dick was a Christ-like figure. Or at least, how I write one. Mods The most obvious difference between real essays and the things one has to write in school is that real essays are not exclusively about English literature. Certainly schools should teach students how to write.
But due to a series of historical accidents the teaching of writing has gotten mixed together with the study of literature. And so all over the country students are writing not about how a baseball team with a small budget might compete with the Yankees, or the role of color in fashion, or what constitutes a good dessert, but about symbolism in Dickens.
With the result that writing is made to seem boring and pointless. Who cares about symbolism in Dickens? Dickens himself would be more interested in an essay about color or baseball. How did things get this way? To answer that we have to go back almost a thousand years. AroundEurope at last began to catch its breath after centuries of chaos, and once they had the luxury of curiosity they rediscovered what we call "the classics.
These earlier civilizations were so much more sophisticated that for the next several centuries the main work of European scholars, in almost every field, was to assimilate what they knew.
During this period the study of ancient texts acquired great prestige. It seemed the essence of what scholars did. As European scholarship gained momentum it became less and less important; by someone who wanted to learn about science could find better teachers than Aristotle in his own era.
In the 19th century the study of ancient texts was still the backbone of the curriculum. The time was then ripe for the question: But for obvious reasons no one wanted to give that answer. The archaeological work being mostly done, it implied that those studying the classics were, if not wasting their time, at least working on problems of minor importance.
And so began the study of modern literature. There was a good deal of resistance at first.
The first courses in English literature seem to have been offered by the newer colleges, particularly American ones. Oxford had a chair of Chinese before it had one of English. This idea along with the PhD, the department, and indeed the whole concept of the modern university was imported from Germany in the late 19th century.
Beginning at Johns Hopkins inthe new model spread rapidly. Writing was one of the casualties. Colleges had long taught English composition. But how do you do research on composition? The professors who taught math could be required to do original math, the professors who taught history could be required to write scholarly articles about history, but what about the professors who taught rhetoric or composition?
What should they do research on? The closest thing seemed to be English literature. This had two drawbacks: High schools imitate universities. The seeds of our miserable high school experiences were sown inwhen the National Education Association "formally recommended that literature and composition be unified in the high school course.
That principle, like the idea that we ought to be writing about literature, turns out to be another intellectual hangover of long forgotten origins.
In fact they were more law schools. And at least in our tradition lawyers are advocates, trained to take either side of an argument and make as good a case for it as they can.
Whether cause or effect, this spirit pervaded early universities.A sense of immediacy: Although Twain's narrative is couched in the past tense, we sense that whatever is going on is happening in the very recent past or even now, as we speak.
This is especially true as he goes from jeweler to jeweler to get his watch fixed. The appalling movement of his watch after each repair feels real to us.
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Academic Writing is a Waste of Time – Unless You Use Our Help. Have you ever tried counting how much time writing a single paper takes? Ever added up the time spent on writing essays and other assignments within a term? IELTS Writing – samples of IELTS essays of Band 7.