Review of current literature on solar water heating

Sol is also used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars. A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian 'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, and Solar deity Solar deities play a major role in many world religions and mythologies.

Review of current literature on solar water heating

References Introduction The sun is shining from a blue sky, delivering a thousand watts of power to every square meter on the earth. It has been doing so since time immemorial, with no notable changes. The only reasonable energy source that we know of, that can keep the sun going like that, is nuclear fusion.

One unavoidable by-product of fusion is a copious flux of particles called neutrinos. Neutrino detectors on earth do find neutrinos coming from the sun, and the observed flux is of the right order of magnitude, confirming that fusion is actually taking place in the sun.

But when detailed calculations of the expected neutrino flux were confronted with measurements, about 30 years ago, a significant discrepancy was found.

Only about half of the expected neutrinos could be found. This anomaly persisted until quite recently, and is known as the "solar neutrino problem". As with many other anomalies in science, creationists e. OardSnellingSarfati have invoked the solar neutrino problem as evidence of more fundamental problems in orthodox "uniformitarian" science.

It is argued, in brief, that since the neutrino flux is wrong, there can't be enough fusion in the sun, in which case the sun can't keep shining for billions of years, so it must be recently created.

In Review of current literature on solar water heating FAQI will first describe the standard view of the sun's internal workings, and then go on to neutrinos, what they are, and what we expect of them from the sun. After that I will discuss various possible solutions to the solar neutrino problem.

Finally, the creationist arguments concerning solar neutrinos, and other solar anomalies, real and fictional, will be treated. This final sectionwith answers to creationist claims, is rather short; the bulk of the faq is in the lengthy introductory sections, containing all the background knowledge needed to understand the answers.

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How does the sun work? We have today a coherent picture of the sun's internal structure and function, supported by several independent lines of evidence.

But this solar model is a fairly recent construction, and the supporting evidence even more so. History Speculations about the nature of the sun are as old as recorded history, but I shall not dwell on the more fanciful versions of old, as they are not pertinent to the solar neutrino issue.

If we restrict ourselves to serious study of the sun, the midth-century is a good place to start, with three important discoveries: The concept of energy, and the associated thermodynamic machinery, leading to the realization that the solar energy flow has to come from somewhere.

The discovery that the sun is not unique, but has counterparts among the stars. Every star is a sun. The discovery through spectroscopy that the sun is made up of the standard chemical elements, same as we find here on earth, and that it glows with a temperature of around degrees C.

The issue of where the sun's energy came from turned out to be a thorny one.

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It was rapidly realized that none of our terrestrial energy sources would be adequate. If the sun, for example, consisted of some fuel that could burn, it would burn out in a matter of centuries, nowhere near enough to illuminate all of recorded history, and never mind the long prehistory of the earth.

Review of current literature on solar water heating

One of the leading theories of the formation of the sun was and is the 18th-century nebular theory of Kant and Laplace, in which the sun formed through the gravitational contraction of a large gas cloud. The potential gravitational energy of the cloud would be released as heat, as it contracted, and Hermann Helmholtz realized that this was a possible energy source for the sun, provided that it was still in the contracting phase.

William Thomson better known as Lord Kelvin elaborated and promulgated this theory during the last decades of the 19th century. It was clear, however, that this energy source, while ample by human standards, couldn't last forever.

Various calculations gave limits on the order of a few tens of millions of years of steady sunshine: This age was troublesome for many; it was too long for Biblical literalists, but too short for geologists and biologists, who could see that the earth and its fauna had a far longer history.

Physicists like Lord Kelvin did not, however, care about the opinion of either literalists or biologists, so their arguments had little impact. But this age for the sun was troublesome also in astronomy; the sun was only one star among many, and if it was assumed, reasonably enough, that all stars worked the same way, contradictions followed.

For one thing, the timescale for gravitational contraction varies strongly with the size of the star Eddington; Hayashi ; larger stars collapse and cool down much faster than sun-sized ones.

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After twenty million years, all large stars should be gone, if they had been created at the same time as the sun. Alternatively, one might assume that star birth is an ongoing process, so that the sky is filled with stars of all different ages. But in that case, there should be no particular pattern if one compared star sizes, temperatures, and luminosities.The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.

It is by far the most important source of energy for life on diameter is about million kilometers, or times that of Earth, and its mass is about , times that of Earth. Convert Your Home to Solar Energy [Joseph R. Provey, Everett M. Barber] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

his definitive homeowner's guide to solar energy has arrived at just the right time. With the cost of heating oil and electricity fluctuating wildly. literature review of the domestic hot water consumption of residential buildings is presented in Section Section then gives a discussion on the methods currently used to size solar water heating systems with reference to the.

A Review of Solar Energy: Markets, Economics and Policies This study presents a synthesis review of existing literature as well as presents solar water heaters, solar air heaters, solar cooling systems and solar cookers. 2 (e.g. Weiss et al., ); the latter refers to use of solar heat to produce steam for electricity generation, also.

residential Solar water Heaters: prices and paybacks. Solar water heating is a tested and reliable technology, that can be used in almost any climate - even in climates like the Alaskan, where it can provide most of the residential hot water .

solar water heaters; the target for being 30%. In , % of existing global solar water heaters capacity was in China; followed by European Union (%), Turkey (%), Japan (%) and Israel (%).

The Indian share was %. The annual average growth in solar water heaters installations in India during was %.

The Solar FAQ: Solar Neutrinos and Other Solar Oddities