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In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and economic character of the postcolonial state. Some worked against the challenges of continued European cultural and political hegemony, while others worked with European powers in order to protect their interests and maintain control over economic and political resources.
Decolonization, then, was a process as well as a historical period. Yet the nations and regions of Africa experienced it with varying degrees of success.
Byformal European political control had given way to African self-rule—except in South Africa. Culturally and politically, however, the legacy of European dominance remained evident in the national borders, political infrastructures, education systems, national languages, economies, and trade networks of each nation.
Ultimately, decolonization produced moments of inspiration and promise, yet failed to transform African economies and political structures to bring about true autonomy and development. The Year of Africa "Most of our weaknesses," declared Kenneth Kaunda, first president of Zambia, in a March speech, "derive from lack of finance, trained personnel, etc.
We are left with no choice but to fall on either the east or west, or indeed, on both of them. When decolonization began, there were reasons for optimism. The year was heralded throughout Africa and the West as "the Year of Africa" for the inspiring change that swept the continent.
During that year, the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa shook the world to awaken to the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters.
Also inseventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. These seventeen nations joined the United Nation's General Assembly and gave greater voice to the non-Western world.
Fully recognizing the potential for the remarkable change that African independence could bring to global politics, on February 3,Harold Macmillan, prime minister of Great Britain from todelivered his famous speech, "Wind of Change," to the South African parliament.
The Cold War It was this fear of Soviet influence in Africa, particularly on the part of the United States, that created such a major problem for African nations. Western powers viewed African independence through the lens of the Cold War, which rendered African leaders as either pro-West or pro-East; there was little acceptable middle ground.
Along these lines, in his speech on the occasion of Kenya's independence from Britain inPrime Minister Jomo Kenyatta in power from to declared: The aim of my government which starts today is not to be pro-left or pro-right.
We shall pursue the task of national building in friendship with the rest of the world. Nobody will ever be allowed to tell us, to tell me: We shall remain free and whoever wants friendship with us must be a real friend. Nonetheless, as Africans declared themselves nonaligned, pro-West, or Marxist sympathizers, Cold War politics deprived them of the freedom to truly shape their political paths.
Combined with the strong residue of the colonial political structure, African leaders designed their internal and external politics mindful of the Western powers' vigilance against socialist or communist influences. Although Western European powers granted aid to African nations, they also coerced governments to support their agendas and instigated and aided coups against democratically elected governments.
They also fomented civil unrest to ensure that governments friendly to their Cold War agenda remained in power and those that were not were removed by political machinations or assassination.
In the Congo, for example, Joseph Mobutu took a strong anti-communist position and was subsequently rewarded by Western powers. It mattered little that in he helped orchestrate the coup that removed and ultimately brought about the murder of Patrice Lumumba, was among the most anti-democratic leaders on the continent, and siphoned Western aid and revenue from the nation's natural resources into personal accounts.History of Europe - Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
Simultaneously, western political system and education system were brought into the region as well. Mainly, the colonial powers have changed Southeast Asia politically, socially, and economically. The paper will assess the economic, social, and political impact of colonial powers, particularly Europeans power, upon Southeast Asia and forecast. The Scientific Revolution, in a little more than a century, drastically and irrevocably changed Western European science and philosophy by changing the fundamental views on the nature of knowledge. The revolutions of , (sometimes referred to in the German lands as the Völkerfrühling or the Springtime of Peoples), can perhaps be seen as a particularly active phase in the challenge populist claims to political power had intermittently been making against the authority traditionally exercised by the dynastic governments of Europe.
The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. Through the process of decolonization that began, in most African territories, at the close of World War II, African leaders gained greater political power under European rule.
In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and . Positive and Negative Effects of Cold War on Germany Essay Sample When looking at the Cold War most everyone begins to think about the United States and the Soviet Union.
Even though these were the major countries that brought it up there are also other countries that . There were few positive effects for the African people themselves. One of these was the fact that a very limited number of Africans were offered a western education, but the negatives for the.
Mar 10, · The Middle East during World War One. Few events in world history have had a more profound impact than that of World War One ().
They believed that the western powers. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 8: The American and French Revolutions, –93 (), pp Grab, Alexander. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (Macmillan, ), .